Universal Design For Learning
There are a number of strategies and resources available that can be employed to support teachers in promoting inclusion:
Universal Design for Learning (Meyer, Rose, & Gordon, 2014Universal design for learning: Theory and Practice. Wakefield, MA: CAST Professional Publishing) is an educational framework and accompanying guidelines to support the design of learning goals, materials, methods, assessments, and supporting policies with diverse learners in mind.
UDL principles have been utilized in general education and physical education classes to enable teachers to deliver a more child-centered approach to learning (Israel et al., 2014Universal Design for Learning: Recommendations for teacher preparation and professional development (Document No. IC-7).; Lieberman, Lytle, & Clark, 2008Getting it Right from the Start. Employing the Universal Design for Learning into your Curriculum. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.).The UDL framework promotes three core principles for teachers to build into their teaching practice. These include providing children with multiple means of: engagement; representation; and action and expression (CAST, 2018Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.2.).
Multiple means of engagement – is the why of learning and relates to the use of a range of psychomotor practices to enhance children’s motivation to learn (Liberman & Greiner, 2019Infusing Universal Design for Learning into Physical Education professional Preparation Programmes. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. ). In engaging children in learning there are various strategies that can be utilized such as giving them choice and autonomy and offering tasks that are authentic and meaningful (Rapp, 2014Universal Design for Learning in Action: 100 Ways to Teach All Learners. Balitmore, M.D: Paul H. Brooks.).
Click below for guidelines to assist teachers in in incorporating UDL principles to the design and implementation of their physical education classes.
Lieberman-Brian Inclusion Rating Scale (LIRSPE)
Lieberman, Brian, and Grenier (2017) developed the Lieberman-Brian Inclusion Rating Scale (LIRSPE) to assist in supporting teachers in planning, instructing, and assessing children with additional needs to facilitate their full participation in physical education. The purpose of this rating scale is to evaluate the effort made by teachers to include children with additional needs in a general physical education environment. The LIRSPE measures the actions taken by teachers to ensure children with disabilities are offered physical education opportunities alongside their typically developing peers. Please click on the links below to view the Rating Scale and associated Rubric.
There are various adaptation models, outlining a range of variables that can be considered when including children with additional needs in physical education, sport, and/or games. These models are not ‘off-the-shelf’ solutions, rather they are signposts to guide inclusive participation. Some commonly used models are: TREE, STEP, and Inclusive TIMES. TREE is an acronym for Teaching style, Rules, Environment, Equipment. STEP is an acronym for Space, Task, Equipment, and People. TIMES is an acronym for Time, Instruction, Movement, Environment, and Support, this model is currently used in the fitness context.
- The Inclusion Club (2017). Models of Inclusion.
Inclusion is an ongoing process of experiential learning through practice, while working to meet the individual and group needs of children. An important step in this experiential learning process is reflection and self-evaluation. The links below direct teachers to tools which enable them to evaluate their efforts in promoting inclusion.
- Including Pupils with SEN and/or Disabilities in Primary Physical Education, Chapter 3: Self-audit for Inclusive Physical Education Lessons, p. 7.
- Lieberman, L., Brian, A., & Grenier, M., (2017). The Lieberman-Brian Inclusion Rating Scale for Physical Education. European Physical Education Review.
- NCHPAD, The Lieberman-Brian Inclusion Rating Scale for Physical Education Tool.
- NCHPAD, LIRSPE Rubrics for Each Item.
Singapore Disability Sports Council (2015)
Let’s Play Together. Let’s Play Together is an Inclusive games resource aim to be all-encompassing and enable all children of differing abilities to engage in sports and games together with a focus on physical, intellectual, autism spectrum, visual and hearing impairments.Download PDF
UNESCO International Charter of Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sport. The International Charter of Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sport is a rights-based reference that orients and supports policy- and decision-making in sport.
Australian Sports Commission (2010)
Athletics Play. Playing for Life is a manual with an approach to coaching that uses games rather than drills to introduce the skills and tactics of the particular sport or structured physical activity being delivered. Each session is designed purposefully, so that the games progressively introduce and develop the particular skill that is the focus of the session. A CHANGE IT focus is applied to make tasks easier and more challenging as well as a FISH acronym with the following principles underpinning the work – Is the game FUN? – Is the game INCLUSIVE? – Is the game SAFE? – Is the game ensuring HIGH INVOLVEMENT?Download PDF
Unfallkasse Nordrhein-Westfalen (2006)
Gemeinsames Lernen im Schulsport. Inklusion auf den Weg gebracht. Band 1 – Grundlagen [Learning together in physical education. Inclusion on the way. Volume 1 - Basics]. Düsseldorf: Unfallkasse NRW.
Volume 1 of this guide aims to present the foundations of inclusion and integration, in terms of curricula, safety, performance assessment and compensation of disadvantages. In order to be able to deal with the increasing heterogeneity of the school population, teachers need special pedagogical skills: they should be able to work with support plans and to cooperate in multi-professional teams in school. They should be able to differentiate needs for additional educational support – from those with additional needs for example for children with autism, severe disabilities and chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity.
Unfallkasse Nordrhein-Westfalen (2017)
Gemeinsames Lernen im Schulsport. Inklusion auf den Weg gebracht. Band 1 – Praxisbeispiele [Learning together in physical education. Inclusion on the way. Volume 1 – Practical examples]. Düsseldorf: Unfallkasse NRW.
Volume 2 is devoted to the practical design of contemporary physical education for heterogeneous learning groups. How to design a varied swimming programme for beginners? How can you dance together? How can students improve their stamina together during endurance run? How can an exercise course be designed with large equipment? What does suitable soccer training look like? But key pedagogical questions are also answered, e.g. How do I deal with disruptive, challenging behaviour as a teacher? How can I diagnose motor competencies in physical education?
DIPPE Functional Map for General Primary Education Download PDF
Teachers in an Inclusive Physical Education Setting.
Guidelines to assist teachers in in incorporating UDL principles to the design and implementation of their physical education classes.Download PDF